ĪQĀN https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan <p><em>Bi-Annual Research Journal of Islamic Studies: ĪQĀN</em>, is a tri-lingual, Double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access publication by the Department of Islamic Studies, Riphah International University Faisalabad Campus, for the regularity of research production in Islamic Studies and to accelerate the skills of researcher with a devotion.</p> Department of Islamic Studies, Riphah International University, Faisalabad en-US ĪQĀN 2617-3336 Challenges of Rhetorical translation Translation of Surah Al-Kawthar https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/377 <p>This study paper is trying to find out the difficulties in rhetorical translation and its implicit meaning. Translation of Quranic verses is seriously a difficult job because it includes the tacit relationship of meaning with the words and the structure of sentences. The translation is a scientific and civilized work through which nations rise and flourish and cultures and civilizations fertilize, so we find the nation is the foundation for itself, its civilization and its glory, for the development of the nation and benefit from the civilization of other nations resorting to translating its production in order to be inspired by the human heritage.</p> <p>With the above facts, the paper tries to study the translation of Surah al-Kwathar and find the lapses and shortcomings in the translation of this Surah in Urdu and English and the paper underlined the difficulties faced by the translator in understanding the quranic verses.</p> Dr. Lubna Farah Khan Copyright (c) 2022 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 4 2 14 24 10.36755/iqan.v4i02.377 An Analysis of the Objections Related to the International Law of Islam https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/387 <p>The purpose of this research article is to examine the objections regarding international Islamic law in the light of the thoughts of Dr. Muhammad Hameedullah. This law guarantees peace, prosperity, respect for humanity, mutual relations, and the promotion of equality on the earth. It has a unique status in human history. The Qur'an, Hadith, and Islamic jurisprudence played a pivotal role in its formation. This ideal law proposed by Islam played an extraordinary role in establishing cordial relations between the nations. The majority of scholars confirm and appreciate this historical evidence. Contrary to this positive attitude, some orientalists have raised some objections regarding international Islamic law. Dr. Muhammad Hameedullah has scholarly examined these objections. It is very important to study the thoughts of Dr. Muhammad Hameedullah in order to understand Islamic thought and to remove the objections to international Islamic law. This article is presented to fulfill this scholarly need.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dr. Muhammad Hameedullah, Hadith, International Islamic Law, Islam, Islamic Jurisprudence, Orientalists, Quran</p> Dr. Nadeem Abbas Dr. Shagufta Naveed Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 2 9 20 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.387 The Quranic Concept of Economic Welfare https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/368 <p>Quran lays emphasis on the economic welfare of humanity. Allah Almighty decreed rulers work for the welfare of individuals. Muslims have been asked at many places in Holy Quran to help their needy poor fellow so that the people in society continue to help each other, class difference may not come into existence and no one in society is left needy. Quranic concept of economic welfare lays stress on that kind of economic prosperity in which the people of society are spiritually and mentally calm and satisfied. It educates individuals in a way that may help them succeed in both worlds. Quranic teachings on the circulation of wealth make welfare a phenomenon common to all classes of society, so that clashes between different classes of society may be avoided. A Muslim also purifies his soul from all kinds of impurities with the help of Infaq fi Sabil-il-Allah and may hope to seek the reward of this the hereafter. Allah Almighty commands to build the structure of economic growth on the foundation of best morals. Allah Almighty declares clearly in Holy Quran that nations or Individual would be punished when they violate His commands. To work for attaining worldly benefits, without violating the rules of Shariah is a collective as well as an individual responsibility. The purpose of this research paper is to highlight the importance of the Quranic concept of economic welfare in the present era. The research paper follows a descriptive and analytical approach.</p> Sadia Gulzar Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 2 85 95 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.368 Prophetic Leadership and Management (An Analytical Review of Islamic Perspectives) https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/382 <p>Leadership is a crucial and indispensable management role that helps in directing an organization’s resources in a direction that proves to be beneficial in the long run for them, all done with an intention of improved efficiency and achievement of goals. However, Leadership and its various management styles in the modern world continue to change with the changes in moral and ethical values. This paper is located within a conceptual framework of Leadership in Islam and the Prophetic Teachings that shed light on the characteristic of Leadership. It explores the concept of Leadership in Islam with extensive detail on the precise teachings and leadership styles of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH. An abundance of journal articles has been thoroughly sought and looked at in order to first and foremost, understand the basic traits of Leadership in Islam, an in-depth analysis of Strategic Leadership by Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), and following this, the exploration of actual events that took place in the life of Muhammad (PBUH) that demonstrated various aspects of Leadership Styles.</p> Dr. Muhammad Tayyeb Nadeem Dr. Ahmad Raza ul Habib Fouzia Ayub Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 4 2 15 25 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.382 Muslim Scholars and The Study of Orientalism: An Analytical Study https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/392 <p><span class="fontstyle0">The aim of this research paper is to analyze and determine the role and scope of the works of Muslim scholars on Orientalists. Muslim scholars have done exclusive works in this field of research. They have responded literally, morally, and logically to all those lame excuses which Orientalists have raised about Islam. Many Muslim scholars have sacrificed their lives in this service of Islam. But the research of Muslim scholars on Orientalists also indirectly affects the Muslim Ummah, especially the works of those Muslim scholars who presented their research works in local languages (Urdu, Arabic, Persian, Malay, etc). This way of research helps Orientalists' views penetrate in Muslim Ummah because the common Muslims have easy access to the works of Orientalists in their own languages. This paper also discussed those parameters which a Muslim scholar must keep in mind while researching Orientalists</span> </p> Dr. Riaz Ahmed Dr. Rafi u Din Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 2 40 52 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.392 Impact of revival theories of Islamic civilization on contemporary political thoughts of the Turkey https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/333 <p><em>The idea of revival of Islamic civilization is a fundamental concern of Muslim theology. Ideas of Muslim scholars, especially their critique on western civilization and secularism have been playing a pivotal role in deriving the psyche of Islamists’ Politics throughout the Muslim World. These ideas were very vital in the formation of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood and from there, they were exported and flourished in Turkey. Although at that time, Turkey was under the rule of secular dictators but politicians like Adnan Menderes, Turgat O?zal and Necmettin Erbakan were fighting against the secular regime of their country. They saw the Turkish political uprising through the lens of Islamic identity. The current President of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdogan is famously known to be a prote?ge? of Erbakan and some may even at lengths to call the warrior of revivalist tribe. From the time he became the mayor of Istanbul to the point be abolished the parliamentary system to replace it with "presidential monarchy”, we can find the footprints of Islamism throughout his political journey and the rise of his party. Events such as his unwavering support of Egypt’s Muslims Brotherhood to his unapologetic stance on Palestine and removal from the ban on hijab to the resurrection of Hagia Sophia as a Mosque, show enough evidence of the Islamist ideology that he tends to follow. This article will be discussing how the ideas of Muslim revival have inspired his political journey and how they continue to impact his political and foreign policy decisions. </em></p> Syed Mustaqeem Moin Muhammad Saad Riyaz Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 4 2 26 36 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.333 Muslim Intellectual Scholarship and Modern Nation States (A case Study of Syed Abul Ala Mawdudi’s Views) https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/378 <p>Syed Abu al ala Maududi was a renowned Muslim scholar. He changed the political and religious trends in the sub-continent through his scholarly work. He took an active part in the freedom movement for a separate homeland for the Muslims of the sub-continent. Syed Maududi passed away in 1979 and was buried in Lahore. Syed Maududi has a different political his own political doctrine and a different political ideology. He started his political movement on his own logical agenda rather than adopting Sufism; though having deep insight into political affairs. In the 20<sup>th</sup> century, when the Nation-States came into being as the result of the New World Order after the 2<sup>nd</sup> world war and a couple of Muslim States appeared around the world globe. These states are based on the theory of nationalism, not Islamic Ideology. Syed Abu al ala Maududi keenly observed all these scenarios. He was a great critic of nationalism and considers it fatal and poisonous for a Muslim state. He considered it a great weakness for the Muslim states around the world and presented the Islamic political system in its true spirit<em>. </em></p> Abdul Rehman Muddassir Dr. Sher Ali Copyright (c) 2022 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-28 2022-05-28 4 2 1 8 10.36755/iqan.v4i02.378 Precautionary measures for infectious diseases in the light of Islamic Shariah (An Analytical study) https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/388 <p>Islam is not only a religion of religious adulation but also provides a complete and sufficient knowledge on all stages of human life. It has provided us complete knowledge on maintenance of human’s health and purifications. Furthermore, it has guided us to abstain from all the harmful things which causes damage to human’s life. Among all the sicknesses, infectious diseases cause the most hazardous effect on mankind all around the world. In recent COVID-19 pandemic situation, World Health Organization (WHO) has specified the precautionary measures to ensure the safety of human health.&nbsp; According to the guidelines instructed by World Health Organization, Government and health specialists around the world take some initiatives to control the extent of infectious virus. It is considered to be the most contagious when people are most symptomatic. In general, there are few or no treatment options for viral diseases. There are some precautions to be taken to overcome the pandemic. These steps include; frequently cleaning of hands with soap or alcohol based sanitizer, covering nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing, keeping distance from persons with cold and flu. Islam is a complete code of life for mankind. It strongly emphasis on the precautions and cleanliness. Hence in present-day condition the guidelines provided by health organizations are already mentioned in Islamic Shariah and was followed by ?a??bahs and Islamic authorities. No doubt we must consider Islamic teachings for the betterment of society. Firstly, as a Muslim it is important to seek Allah’s protection and being a responsible citizen, it is obligatory to act upon the precautions specified by the health specialists and strictly follow the rules indicated by Government. In this article, the traditions and teachings of Holy Prophet SAW regarding the health, cleanliness and religious rituals&nbsp; are discussed along with the safety measurements provided by WHO which includes cleanliness, better healthy food, quarantine, and social distancing etc. will be discussed thoroughly.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Asma Aziz Kashaf u dduja Shama Naz Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 2 72 84 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.388 Current Global Warming Prevention in Islamic Perspective: Research Review https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/376 <p>Global warming is global issue in modern times.Global warming and climate change&nbsp; have affected the entire world. It &nbsp;is essential to take preventive measures to reduce heat wave and&nbsp; temperature&nbsp; of Earth for protection of&nbsp; human life animal life and plant life. Islamic ecological instructions can play an important role to eradicate current global warming. Deforestation is main cause of global warming.Trees are natural sources of oxygen and cooling in the atmosphere .Trees play&nbsp; a key role in maintaining&nbsp;&nbsp; natural ecological balance of planet Earth.The plants and trees &nbsp;provide humane life&nbsp; with fresh, clean&nbsp; and cool oxygen to breath. Heat wave in recent times&nbsp; must be controlled by&nbsp; planting as many&nbsp; trees as possible.30 percent&nbsp; area of Pakistan was covered with &nbsp;forest and green trees in 1947 but gradually it has shrunk to 5 percent in these days. Deforestation has increased imbalance, disorder, global warming, climate change, air pollution and other many more &nbsp;ecological and biological issues. Every person is hardly motivated to plant new trees more and more in Islamic teachings. This article explores Islamic teachings, preventive measures&nbsp; for&nbsp; global warming&nbsp; prevention.</p> abdul manan cheema abdul manan Dr.Malik Kamran Dr.Muhammad Ali Shaikh Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 4 2 37 46 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.376 Dalits and Their Conversion to Islam: An Analytical Study of The Event in Meenakshipuram https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/385 <p>This research is focusing on a new development that is leading to modern reforms in Hinduism. It discusses an important part of contemporary Hindu-Muslim relations. Dalit outcastes are enthusiastically distancing themselves from Brahmanism or existing Hinduism due to its caste system as it ritualistically considers them impure, even though they are not allowed to enter the temple. Resultantly, their mass conversion to Christianity, Buddhism and Islam has been evidently witnessed for the last three centuries. This study is centred around such an event that represents the mass conversion of Dalits to Islam. It generally highlights the doctrinal status of the outcaste in Hinduism, elaborates on the conversion of Meenakshipuram’s residents and dilates upon the later consequences they encountered. This religious phenomenon resulted in the detachment of some great Hindu scholars from the caste order and its discriminative practices.</p> Abdul Malik Aboobackar Copyright (c) 2022 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-28 2022-06-28 4 2 1 13 10.36755/iqan.v4i02.385 An Analytical Study of the Opinions of Collective Jurisprudential Institutions on Prevailing Insurance https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/393 <p><span class="fontstyle0">The insurance agreement is a significant issue of Islamic jurisprudence which has concerned numerous arguments and deliberations. Shari‘ah researchers, economists, and experts have categorically discussed their views from a Shari‘ah stands point. A number of scholars are opposed to the idea of modern insurance. They highlight objectionable elements like interest, gambling, and uncertainty in insurance. On the other hand, some scholars say nothing incorrect with insurance. According to them, an insurance contract is a valid contract from the Shari‘ah point of view because it is based on Islamic values of<br>collaboration and mutual help. Many international conferences and seminars had been organized on said issue and were studied by collective fiqhi bodies and research organizations in different Muslim countries. This paper aims to review and analyze the<br>verdict uphold in the conferences and the resolutions of research organizations about the shari'ah position of insurance as the collective opinion are always considered stronger than individual opinion. Resolutions of almost all well-known reputed fiqhi bodies were collected and analyzed. It is noted with surprise that although some scholars consider insurance permissible but all collective fiqhi bodies are unanimous on it impermissibility due to the involvement of prohibited elements found in this contract. These bodies also suggested the possible alternative to commercial insurance. `The 1992 report of the Council of Islamic Ideology Pakistan is the most comprehensive work on this subject and provides a detailed model based on the concept of Waqf.</span> </p> Dr. Atiq ul Zafar Khan Dr. Hafiz Waqas Khan Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 4 2 53 71 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.393 Islamophobia, Hatred and Violence against Muslim Communities in the West and Real Picture of Islam https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/364 <p>The aim of this research was related to Islamic studies which reflect the historical information coupled with religious and cultural studies along with philosophical opinions. Due to Islamophobia, the real and appropriate picture of Islam is distorted so the focus of the current study was on the related improvement that supports and stimulates the real picture of Islam in the world. Therefore, the study aimed to examine the Islamophobia hatred, and violence against Muslim communities in the west and the real picture of Islam. For this purpose, the data collected was qualitative, such that secondary data was critically analysed by the tool of content analysis. It was analysed that the concept of Islamophobia had originated in the 19<sup>th</sup> century and this term in the early 20<sup>th</sup> century had been redefined. Islamophobia was a new practice of racism where judgments and discriminations are focused and targeted on the religious community, also known as ‘cultural racism’. Anti-Muslim sentiments had experienced a rapid rise in the west over the past few decades. Post 9/11 era had led to a global shift, racism towards Muslims was observed in fields like education, economy, labor market, and international relations. Moreover, anti-veil campaigns and the killing of immigrants were another outcomes of the Islamophobia mindset in the west. Moreover, it had been found in the findings that the events like 9/11 and the continuous conflicts in the Middle East had a destabilizing impact on Muslims as well as western countries. Due to which this Islamophobia attitudes are on the rise in western culture. It was recommended that for Muslims to continue there was a need to spread the real teachings of the peaceful religion Islam in their social circles.</p> Muhammad Umar Riaz Abbasi Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-14 2022-08-14 4 2 1 14 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.364 The Approach of Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmad in the book “The life of the Prophet in the light of Original Sources” https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/381 <p>The Seerah of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) had been an interesting and attractive topic for scholars and researchers from the beginning of this chapter and is still, as was in previous times. It is considered the authentic history of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) which reached to us and the reason for its authenticity is that Qur’an has described a number of events of the Prophet’s life in detail. Moreover, the authenticity of this piece of history is that it has been saved and protected by the companions of Prophets and transferred to the next generations, which is preserved in the form of Hadith. The Islamic scholars and historians have described and discussed the life of Prophet (S.A.W) while using different approaches. We have a number of Seerah Books in which the life of the prophet has been described comprehensively in detail. In this study the researchers have used the book "Al Seerah al Nabwiah fi zo al Masadar al Asliah Darast al Tahliaha" and have discussed the approach and methodology of the Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmad in the book.</p> <p>Keywords: Seerah, Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmad, original sources, seerah approaches.</p> <p> </p> Tawseef Ahmad Bhat Dr.Sami ullah Zubairi Shabir Ahmad Khan Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-18 2022-06-18 4 2 24 41 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.381 The Objectives and Styles of Quranic Sirah-Writing: An Illstrative Study https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/389 <p><em>The early Muslim historians and hadith experts recoded the Sirah (life and biography of the Prophet Muhammad -peace be upon him-) literature in their historical annals, and hadith collections. The Sirah-writings was gradually developed as an independent field of inquiry in which the writers employed other sources such as the Quran, exegeses, hermeneutics, Arabic poetry, geography and even theology for Sirah understanding. However, it has been observed that the central position of history and hadith compendiums in Sirah-writings remained intact till the advent of Modern period in which a great change has been witnessed both in methods and styles of Sirah-writings to respond the western critique of Sirah-writings and to present the holy life of the Prophet as a model for humankind. &nbsp;Therefore, they attempted to revisit the sources with reversionistic approaches and a variety of methods and styles were devised for systematic Sirah-writing. The present study aims to explore the objective of the newly emerged trend of the Quranic based Sirah-writings. A meticulous effort has been made to identify the objectives of this genre. A plethora of literature has been composed to construct an authentic biography of the Prophet grounding on the Quran as its prime source. However, those who follow this trend are clearly categorized into two distinctive groups, those who reject the historical and Prophetic traditions altogether and those who employ the traditions for better understanding of the Quranic text regarding the life of the Prophet. An illustrative case study of the Quranic Sirah-wrings has been conducted to identify the nature, objectives of the subject and how various approaches have been espoused by the leading experts of the field. </em></p> Asifa Aslam Dr. Ghulam Shams Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2022 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-30 2022-07-30 4 2 21 39 10.36755/iqan.v4i2.389