ĪQĀN https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan <p><em>Bi-Annual Research Journal of Islamic Studies: ĪQĀN</em>,&nbsp; a tri-lingual, Double blind peer- reviewed, open access publication is established by Department of Islamic Studies, Riphah International University Faisalabad Campus in June 2018 for the regularity of research production in Islamic Studies and to accelerate the skills of researcher with a devotion.</p> Department of Islamic Studies, Riphah International University, Faisalabad en-US ĪQĀN 2617-3336 Arabic Language as Source of Qur’anic Exegeses: Study of Ghulam Ahmad Pervaiz’s Arguments https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/234 <p><em>Principles of Quranic exegesis are illustration of Qur’an, gradually by Qur’an, Hadith, sayings of companions of holy prophet (SAW), Arabic literature, as well as rational reasoning. Study of Quranic commentaries reveals that, although, there is a consensus on these principles being used for Quranic exegeses but there are variations in understanding and application of these. In this context, the commentaries also differ from one scholar to other. One of these scholars is Ghulam Ahmad Pervaiz, author of Urdu exegesis of Qur’an, whose understanding and application of these principles completely differ from mainstream scholars. Pervaiz used the Arabic language and dictionary meanings as a basic source of Quranic exegeses, while other use it as secondary source. Similarly, Pervaiz rejected the principle of Quranic exegesis ‘illustration by Hadith’. This article discussed the validity and authenticity of Arabic language as a source of Quranic exegesis and Pervaiz’s application of it by disagreeing with mainstream scholars. Analysis made based on basic exegesis principles and historical traditional literature.</em></p> Dr. Abdul Razzaq Dr. Zafar Iqbal Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 3 01 1 20 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.234 Contemporary Ideality of Sunnah al-Tarkiyah and unity of the Muslim Ummah: Research Study https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/235 <p><em>This research eradicates the motives of innovation in the acts and deeds of Muslim Ummah. The un-islamic and unlawful additions are going to destruct the Ummah day by day. Innovation in its sense, has no more importance, but its pioneers are spreading it. All the disputes at last has roots in these innovations. Muslim ummah remained united until or unless innovations intermingled. As era went far off from the Nabwi era, the real sense of religion being vanished.</em> <em>As 14th century A.H. came nobody is there to prove innovations as no more part of Islam. Followers of innovation are increasing day by day and there are minority of Muslims left who want to get rid of it. Majority is serving his energy to prove that innovations are part of Islam. Secondly, they find its roots from Nabwi era which is useless. Thirdly, they wrongly proving its reward in this world and hereafter.</em> <em>Major objective of this research is to intimate all such acts and deeds which are wrongly now going to be the part and parcel&nbsp; of Shari’ah, as well as be the part of our legislation. Such kind of all deeds and actions must be condemned and discouraged for the sake of unity peace and sovereignty of the Muslim world.</em></p> Muhammad Usman Khalid Dr. Muhammad Shahbaz Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 3 01 21 40 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.235 Discourses of Principles of Ijtihad and Ibn e Hazm’s Approach: an Analytical Study https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/236 <p><em>Ibn e ?azm was a notable and leading scholar of al-??hir?yyah. He extended enormous research work in the multiple Islamic sciences such as principles of jurisprudence (‘U??l), fiqh, and comparative study of religions &amp; Islamic philosophy. He presents novel idea regarding juristic effort or Islamic legal reasoning (Ijtih?d). Ibn e ?azm negates the very concept of analogical reasoning (Qiy?s) and calls for mandatory adoption of ijtihad on everyone. Moreover, he mandates few necessary requirements for an Islamic jurist (mujtahid). Further elaborating his notion on this point, he presents different rankings of a mujtahid regarding their right and wrong inferences while performing juristic work. This paper presents such ideas especially </em><em>discourses of principles of Ijtih?d </em><em>by Im?m Ibn e ?azm. </em></p> Tahir Islam Dr. Hafiza Shahida Perveen Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 3 01 41 58 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.236 The Tradition of Protecting Non-Muslim Places of Worship in Muslim Society: Modern Applications https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/237 <p><em>Pakistan is such a unique Islamic state which has great significance in regard of the application of Islamic Ideology and observance of human rights. The Muslims are in majority in this state of extraordinary political and geo-starategic importance whereas the Christians, the Hindus, the Sikh, the Buddhist, the Bahais and the Parsees are some of the remarkable religious minorities living here. These religious minorities are a symbol of the socio-religious diversity of Pakistan. In this prospect, the protection of the rights of the religious minorities is extremely necessary. The worship places of these minorities exist almost all over Pakistan. It is a matter of great satisfaction that Islam lays great emphasis on the sanctity of these worship places. Moreover, the Muslims have been taking extraordinary steps to protect these places. They have always been encouraging to build and promote such places. Even after having such a glorious background, the entire world generally and Pakistan especially is facing the gigantic dangers of socio-religious prejudices and intolerance. In this scenario, the worship places of the religious minorities are facing serious threats like terror attacks and disgrace. It is necessary to have an impartial analysis of the Islamic teachings, the attitude of the Muslim rulers and the contemporary challenges regarded to the security and development of these places. A comprehensive understanding and a lasting solution of these challenges should be sorted for a peaceful co-existence in Pakistan. This research article has been presented to comprehend different aspects of the protection of the worship places of the religious minorities of Pakistan.</em></p> Hafiz Muhammad Naveed Dr. Muhammad Riaz Mahmood Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 3 01 59 76 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.237 The Concept of State intervention in economic Affairs: study of Islamic Injunctions https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/238 <p><em>Islam is a Religion in line with nature. It introduced its own economic system that up to the man’s needs and requirements. It contradicts the communism and capitalism and claims that Islamic economic structure guarantees the welfare of humanity. In this setup, the buyers and sellers are free to make their deals and every person has the equal opportunities to be a wealthy and prosperous trader. Muslims had implemented this system in their golden era and showed the benefits of this setup to world The basic question has been raised either state has authority to interfere the economic deals, why state is interested to involve or what would be the limits of their involvement.&nbsp; In this paper Descriptive Method and Comparative Study are used to study the concept of interference of state in economic matters. This research paper is an effort to understand the Islamic point of view that to what extent the Islamic State can interfere in economic policies, according to the Islamic injunction. In this article, it has been elaborated that the State has the legal and ethical right to intervene the economic matters when hoarding usury and gambling is rampant.</em></p> Maria Ashraf Dr. Abdul Rouf Zahid Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 3 01 77 96 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.238 Religion-Friendly Postmodernism: An Analysis of Westphal’s Ideas https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/239 <p>This paper purports to analyze the religion-friendly postmodernism proposed by Merold Westphal. It begins by reviewing the current positions on the question of the relationship between post-modernism and religion and attempts to locate Westphal’s position in the intellectual map. It is submitted that there exists a spectrum of positions on the said question that stretches from anti-religious post-modernisms to religious rejections of post-modernism. Having briefly discussed important reasons for choosing Westphal for discussion, the paper proceeds to analyze his understanding of the nature of post-modernism, and his project of the ‘religious appropriation of post-modernism.’ It discusses in detail the question whether, being inimical to all ‘meta’ narrative and being anti-metaphysical, post-modernism is incompatible with religious beliefs, and whether the post-modern hermeneutic theory leaves any room for deriving objective meaning from religious texts. Westphal’s appropriation project is then discussed at length in its two hermeneutical prongs of ‘fininitude’ and ‘suspicion’ derived by him respectively from the beliefs of human ‘createdness’ and ‘fallenness.’ In conclusion it is shown how Westphal’s work attempts to represent a middle position between the two extremes discussed in the beginning of the paper.</p> Dr. Qaisar Shahzad Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 3 01 97 122 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.239 Academic Materials on Hinduism in Urdu: A Thematic Bibliography https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/240 <p>Three types of academic sources are crucial for understanding the Hindu tradition in our times: a) scriptures and the classical texts that are available mostly in Sanskrit b) works in the English language produced by orientalists, religious studies scholars, and some modern Hindu religious leaders themselves, and c) writings of colonial/post-colonial Hindu and Muslim scholars on Hinduism in Hindi/Urdu language that is understood by a vast majority of the population in South Asia. Many Hindu authors used to write on their religion in Urdu using the Perso-Arabic script in colonial India. Similarly, some Muslim authors also produced scholarly works on Hinduism in Urdu, which could open up better Hindu-Muslim understanding. However, Urdu ceased to be the medium of such writings when religion and language surfaced as two vital factors in national identity constructions in the changing sociopolitical milieu, a process through which the Urdu language became associated with Muslim culture and religion. As a result, the number of Urdu works on Hinduism decreased sharply after British India's partition along religious lines. Nevertheless, this body of Urdu literature is an essential part of the history of modern Hinduism. Keeping this in view, we have produced a comprehensive thematic bibliography of Urdu works on Hinduism, including books, dissertations, and journal articles, which would help preserve the history of the indigenous study of Hinduism in modern times.</p> Dr. Muhammad Akram Dr. Ayesha Qurrat ul-Ain Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 3 01 123 174 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.240 Rights of elders in the light of Quran and Sunnah: A descriptive study https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/217 <p class="abstract" style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Book Antiqua',serif;">Human being, when gets closer to annihilation, he becomes vulnerable as he progresses towards weakness and eventually he becomes mortal. It is the natural process of a human being that he becomes weak over time, but at the same time, where he is near death, then Allah makes him his beloved. He increases the importance of his weakness and develops sympathy for the elders in his immediate surroundings. If Allah has kept his command in a natural order, he has not left it on the requirements of this natural process, but has revealed the guidance of revelation for it, so that if human beings are to be lacking in these matters. If found, then the instructions of revelation should enlighten him on the completion of this process, and he will succeed in the test that is being run in the background of whole system. Thus, the Shari’ah has produced the precise incentive of each and every order in this order, even though there are those who institute the natural requirements. One of these countless issues is the rights of the elders &amp; elderly. The following two main sources of Islamic Shariah are discussed with the Qur’an and Sunnah. The rules of the law are the same for all, but the Shari’ah separates elders from the end of life and gives special priority to them. This research explains their significant rights, describes their rights in the Qur’an.</span></p> Nazakat Ali Muhammad Ajmal Khan Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-01-26 2021-01-26 3 01 1 12 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.217 The Independent Sunnah in Legislation among Mohadith?ns and Modernists: an analytical study https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/221 <p>This study discusses the issue of the independent Sunnah in legislation from a specific aspect, which is the position of the muhdithin and the position of the modernists towards it. The first trend which includes the majority of hadith and Usul scholars who approves the authority of the independent Sunnah in legislation, and approves that the Prophet possesses the authority of clarification and legislation. The second trend which includes the majority of the Muslim modernist distinguishes between the description of prophethood and the Messangerhood. They confine revelation to the Messenger not to the prophet. They consider prophethood is only a field for the application of revelation. They claim that the independent Sunnah is part of those prophetic applications. This claim ends with stating its Historicism and denying its legislative status. The study discusses these opinions and it concludes that the opinion of Hadith scholars is based on strong evidences. The study clarifies the flaws of the modernist trend that deprives the Sunnah from one of its important legislative aspects without sufficient evidence.</p> Dr. Mohamad Anas Sarmini Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-01-26 2021-01-26 3 01 19 30 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.221 Viewpoint of al-Darqu?n? regarding uncertain singularity of transmitter from most frequent ?m?m: Descriptive study https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/218 <p><em>The Taffarud or singurality in ?ad?th sciences is one of the important and most critical type. Therefore, scholars of the ?ad?th paid it much attention and wrote number of books on the account of “al-Afr?d and al-Ghar?b a??d?th”. Many scholars like ?m?m al-Daraqu?n?, ?m?m al-Bazz?r, al-?m?m al-?abr?n? and other critics composed books on this subject. The discussion about the narrator’s uniqueness and singularity compared to other narrators from his sheikh who has many students, includes in the issue of reasoning, that a transmitter narrates a ?ad?th from that sheikh which his peers do not know about it. If a transmitter who is unique in its narration and also contains the critics of the scholars is called “Taffarud” which comes with different conditions in terms of acceptance and rejection. In that case, it is not acceptable to consider those terms as a totality and whoever takes it as such will be mistaken, as these rules must be understood in the light of the scholar’s understandings and their intention of usage. Otherwise we will eventually deviate from their methodology. This research is divided into an introduction, two articles, and a conclusion. As for the introduction, author defined the “taffarud” literally and lexically. In the first section, author explained the opinions of critics regarding; not to accept the uniqueness of the narrators narrating from a lot others. In the second section, author conducted an applied study on the transmitters who are not likely to be accepted in their narrations from the one who narrates a lot. As well as, author mentioned the conclusion and stidy results.</em></p> Ikram al-Haq Dr. Abdelhamid Kharroub Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-01-26 2021-01-26 3 01 31 46 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.218 Legal maxim ‘there is neither crime nor punishment except by text’: Study in the perspective of Islamic criminal law and Pakistani criminal law https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/219 <p class="abstract" style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;">This study contains on a legal maxim; crime neither can be proved nor be punished without verse or legal text (statute), as well as it is a comparative analysis in prospective of Islamic criminal law and Pakistani criminal law. In contemporary world it is a basic principle in the criminal justice system that a person can neither be convicted nor be punished without prescribed law. Islamic law has fixed some punishments strictly like ?ud?d, qi??? and d?yy?t. while some of the punishments like taz?r<span dir="RTL" lang="ER">?</span>t &amp; siy?sah shar’iah come under the jurisdiction of state according to the circumstances, which can be fixed by practicing parliamentary ijt?h?d by if and only if the experts islamic legal system. This study will deal with the literal meaning of the legal maxim, &amp; will be explained with the references of Qur’an &amp; Sunnah and its applications from Islamic law (al-fiqh al-isl?m?). To make it more clear &amp; evident this maxim will be compared with the constitution &amp; penal code of Pakistan, focusing on the main differences between the concept of crime in both i.e. Islamic criminal law and the Pakistani law.</p> Dr. Naveed Altaf Khan Hafiz Muhammad Zaheer Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-01-26 2021-01-26 3 01 47 64 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.219 Depression in modern phsycology: Study in the light of Islam https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/220 <p><em>Immense sadness is called depression which is a common and serious mood disorder affecting 121 million people worldwide. It affects thoughts, feelings, behaviors, physical health and social life of a person. Depressed person overwhelms with sadness, loses interest in life and feels difficulty in making decisions. Brain chemistry, genetics, social and environmental factors may cause depression. Antidepressants and talking therapies are major treatment of depression.&nbsp; Islam is a true religion on the earth, which covers all aspects of life, bridges gap between spirit and matter, balances between individualism and collectivism. Fundamentals of Islam help in prevention and treatment of depression. A true Muslim believes in oneness of Allah almighty, he believes that Allah almighty alone runs all affairs of universe, considers life as a place of trials and tribulations, remains patient in difficulties of life, his heart is peaceful with the remembrance of Allah, he puts trust in Allah almighty, whenever he commits sin repents, seeks forgiveness from Allah almighty for his sin.</em></p> Wajahat Khan Dr. Khalil al-Rehman Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-01-26 2021-01-26 3 01 65 86 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.220 Tendency of Calligraphers regading Quran in Modern Era: Samples of Calligraphers in Punjab, Pakistan https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/252 <p><em>This study intended to highlight the precious art of calligraphy in modern era. Calligraphy is the art of beautiful handwriting. According to Islam calligraphy is the writings of Holy Quran in different letters and styles. It is an ancient and artistic practice in cultural heritage. This study reviewed the writings of different calligraphers of Punjab province (Pakistan). Among the large number of calligraphers only 18 renowned calligraphers were selected to this study. All of the selected calligraphers are well recognized due to their art and work. These manuscripts are kept and visually displayed not only in different museums of Pakistan but across the world also. This study highlighted their masterpieces according to the letters and styles of writings. This study also provided the information about the start of calligraphy and its evolutionary stages.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Tariq Mehmood Dr. Zia al-Haq Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-02-19 2021-02-19 3 01 87 100 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.252 CRITICAL REFLECTION ON PATHOLOGICAL PORTRAYAL OF HOLY PROPHET (PBUH) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO D. B. MACDONALD https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/222 <p class="abstract" style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; line-height: normal;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">Nineteenth century in the western theological literary circles, has been proved to be the age of shifting over the academic paradigms from theological debates to introducing Muslim studies particularly. In this perspective, one of the prolific and legendary orientalists Duncan Black MacDonald (d.1943 A.D.) played a pivotal role in transmitting and establishing chairs for Arabic and Islamic learnings at Hartford Seminary. He himself portrayed the image of Islam through his writings and lectures. He authored several books on different matters belonging from the Western thought, ideology, culture and perspective to the Muslim rituals and creeds. His major writings regarding Islam and its fundamental belief focusing Muslim cultural, social, religious and historical foundations got widespread recognition in the western academia. While delivering his famous series of lectures “Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory”; “Religious Attitude and Life in Islam” and “Aspects of Islam” have a remarkable impression of presenting the image of Islam in an absurd way. In particular, he proclaimed Prophet of Islam as a pathological case. In the first phase of the article, D.B. MacDonald’s life sketch has been penned down, while in the second part of the article, his portrayal of Prophet of Islam (PBUH) as a sick person has been described while in the last part of the article, this assertion has been critically reviewed.</span></p> Dr. Muhammad Tariq Ramzan Dr. Muhammad Feroz-ud-Din Shah Khagga Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-01-26 2021-01-26 3 01 1 18 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.222 REFORM THROUGH TRADITION: AN ANALYSIS OF YUSUF AL-QARADWI’S APPROACH TO HALAL AND HARAM https://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/223 <p><em>The concept of permissibility (?al?l) and impermissibility (?ar?m) claims a central place in the Islamic ethos. Muslims are always conscious about the permissibility of whatever they commit or omit in their daily lives, be it in public or private spheres. The level of this consciousness is even higher when it comes to the matter of food. The bewildering range of edible materials and seemingly countless recipes in today’s food market present a formidable challenge for Muslim jurists (fuqah?) in dealing with the issue of permissibility. Among, Y?suf al-Qara??w? is one of the contemporary scholars who have addressed this issue in the context of today’s challenges. This paper discusses al-Qara??w?’s reformative approach to ?al?l and ?ar?m with especial reference to the matters related to food. The paper analyses how al-Qara??w? interprets the relevant Qur’anic verses and the Prophetic traditions (ah?d?th) and attempts to unearth the underlying juristic principles that he relies on for his particular opinions. Also, the paper compares his interpretive strategies with those of the classical jurists. Theoretically, the paper revisits al-Qara??w?’s approach and frames it with reference to Fazlur Rahman’s classification of different reform strategies in Islam. In this light, the article concludes that al-Qara??w?’s approach seems to be what Fazlur Rahman calls ‘reform through tradition.</em></p> Munazza Akram Copyright (c) 2020 ?Q?N 2021-01-26 2021-01-26 3 01 19 32 10.36755/iqan.v3i01.223