ĪQĀN http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan <p><em>Bi-Annual Research Journal of Islamic Studies: ĪQĀN</em>, is a tri-lingual, Double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access publication by the Department of Islamic Studies, Riphah International University Faisalabad Campus, for the regularity of research production in Islamic Studies and to accelerate the skills of researcher with a devotion.</p> en-US editor@iqan.com.pk (Dr. Sajid Asdullah) editoriqan@gmail.com (Dr. Khalid Mahmood Arif) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A Comparative Study of the Preference of Selected Words in Urdu Qur'anic http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/335 <p class="TagArabicIndent"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; font-family: 'Jameel Noori Nastaleeq';">As urdu translations are personal struggles of different scholars, so each translator has chosen Urdu words in his own way. And because of different mindsets and preferences of every translator, we find different Urdu words and phrases for one particular word of the Qur'an . They have written according to their intellect, so every translation seems different. These words seem to determine the divine meaning and the understanding of the Qur'an. The following is a comparative study of the Qur'anic translations of the Indian subcontinent, in which the selection of Urdu words is examined in the light of hadiths, relics, lexicons and sayings of commentators, giving preference to words closer to the divine purpose. And for this, representative translations of well-known sects of the subcontinent have been selected, including Kunzalaiman, Ahsan al-Bayyan and Ma'arif al-Quran. It contains selected verses from Surah Al-Baqarah, Al-Imran, Al-Nisa 'and Al-Ma'ida for commentary on translations.</span></p> Dr. Malik Kamran, Bushra Noreen Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/335 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Political, Social and Historical Implications of the Covenants of the Prophet http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/358 <p>Islam places great emphasis on fulfilling its promises and whether these agreements are personal or collective, economic or trade, peace and ceasefire or for the establishment and survival of law and order both morally and legally. Passing them is unnecessary and necessary. The blessed life of the Holy Prophet is not the best growth for the survival and security of the whole world. Even before his enlightenment, he prevented the Arabs from fighting among themselves and taught them peace and security. As a child, he tried his best for peace. The Qur'an uses synonyms for covenant, word of mouth, covenant, oath, or oath and obligation. In Urdu literature, the word covenant and agreement is used for a solemn promise to be made in writing between two persons or two different groups.</p> Muhammad Shahbaz, Dr. Hafiz Jamshed Akhtar, Dr. Hafiz M Hassan Ubaid Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/358 Sun, 26 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Contemporary Applications of Istehsan in Zakat Related Issues http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/344 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam. Allah Almighty mentions it frequently in the Holy Quran. The Prophet (SAWS) also described its importance and virtue. He mentioned the punishments to be given in case of non-payment. The details of Zakat, i.e. the syllabus and the condition of passing the year on it, etc. show that Zakat is based on ease. The main purpose of Zakat is to help the needy and to distribute wealth fairly. Keeping in view these characteristics and aims of Zakat, the ancient jurists in their time inferred the issues which were in accordance with the conditions of that time and in accordance with the spirit of Sariah. However, due to the change of time and circumstances, some of the rules related to Zakat have come under attack on the purposes of Shariah and instead of ease in Zakat, a state of difficulty and hardship has started to arise. Therefore, these rulings need to be reviewed. Therefore, there is an urgent need for research work on this subject. In this article, the principle of Istishan has been applied to such issues and their ruling has been mentioned in the light of Istishan.</p> Minhaj Ullah, Prof Dr. Mohyuddin Hashmi Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/344 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Research Review of eEducational Integrity Manifestations in Islamic History http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/245 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Islam has emphasized on worship and ideology as well as morality (moral values) One of the goodness virtues is trust and honesty. These are related to wealth, proverbs, suggestions, authority, promise, religion and shariah . Trust and honesty are related to knowledge which is called literal trust and honesty. As, attributing the word to the persuader, narrating the credentials of the Hadith, while&nbsp; extracting the texts belongs to the educational trust and honesty. But use of caution in declaring issnads, lying and theft in the hadiths, is trustworthiness .In modern times, copyright is also related to literal trust and</p> <p>integrity. In this discussion, a research review of the manifestations of educational integrity in Islamic history is presented.</p> Nasir Ali Rajput, Dr. Ashfaq Ahmad, Dr. Muhammad Majid Khan Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/245 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 A Research Review of the Reform Movements of World Religions http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/339 <p><em>Religious reform movements and religious economic movements differ greatly in their goals, organization, and manifestos. Reform movements emphasize the need to bring about change in society and to make individuals righteous in character.&nbsp; These worship&nbsp; &nbsp;for this purpose. Mention Meditation Use sermons and preaching. They have no restrictions on membership of the organization and their doors are open to everyone so that more and more people can benefit from them. In this way these movements emerge from below and create a public character within them. Do Leadership is not important in such organizations. The aim of reform movements is to reform society first. When society improves, political and economic changes will result automatically. Therefore, these movements are usually isolated from politics and do not like to confuse themselves in political disputes. Her argument is that in that case she will be in conflict with her political rivals and will not be able to do her job. On the contrary, we would call other movement’s reformist. Because they do not raise the slogan of revival or revolution, but they want to reform the present society without any fundamental change. They bring religion out of the past by adapting it to the modern age and try to eliminate the contradictions that exist between the basic religion and the modern requirements by adapting its teachings to the modern age.</em></p> Sobia Khan Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/339 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Scholarly and Research Work Related to the Responsibilities and Authorities of Islamic State in Pakistan : A Study of Prominent Trends http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/349 <p>Pakistan is an Islamic ideological state, which is why valuable scholarly and research work has been done in this country on the characteristics, reponsibilities and authorities of the Islamic state. Many books, research articles and theses on the ideological, social, economic and constitutional aspects of the Islamic state have come to light. Strengthening the Islamic state in Pakistan requires further intellectual and research work on the Islamic state. The article under review analyzes the&nbsp; reponsibilities and authorities of the Islamic state regarding the implementation of religious commandments and teachings.</p> Shahid Ishaque, Dr. Muhammad Riaz Mehmood Riaz Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/349 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Muslim and Non-Muslim voices on Qur'an in the Light of the Clinton Bennett’s Work http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/350 <p>Qur’an being the last divine book, has undergone a constant change of response from Muslim and non-Muslim scholars in the last fourteen centuries. Everybody has tried to understand Qur’an according to his own experiences and perceptions. These scholars have adopted various attitudes to understand and interpret the Qur’an and Qur’anic knowledges in every face of history. Clinton Bennett is one of the scholars who has compiled and analyzed the various approaches relating Qur’an. Moreover his coined hierarchy seems to be comparatively proper because he has divided the relative scholars into different categories according to his own classification.</p> <p> Muslim attitudes include conservative (Traditionalists/Revivalists), Moderate (Liberal) and the Progressive ones, while non-Muslim attitudes consist of faith sensitive and critical ones. In addition to the elaborations of various scholastic attitudes Clinton Bennett has at times cited his own version therein.</p> <p>In the study underhand we will try to discuss the hierarchy of the Quranic beliefs as visualized by Muslim and non-Muslim scholars. We will discuss the class and position of the scholars given by Clinton Bennett to them in his hierarchy and would narrate the contribution of the scholars hereafter. We will also examine and study the relative scholars by our own critical analyzation. This research is descriptive and analytical in nature and presents a detailed analysis of the work, it is based upon.</p> Dr. Umm-e-Laila, Dr. Iftikhar Alam, Dr. Muhammad Yasir Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/350 Thu, 14 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Non-Maintenance Creates the Right of Separation for Woman: A Study of Shariah Law and Pakistani Court Practices” http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/330 <p>Islamic law enjoins the husband to maintain his wife and also gives the right to wife for separation when her husband fails or neglects to provide her maintenance. The right of separation on ground of non-maintenance is also acknowledged in Section 2 of Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act 1939. &nbsp;The paper focuses to analyze the Islamic law regarding separation due to non-Maintenance and courts practices in Pakistan. The paper intends to know: what are the reasons on which Islamic Law allows a wife to ask for separation? What are the Jurists opinions regarding separation due to non-maintenance? what is the procedure that is followed in the court to dissolve the marriage on ground of non-maintenance? What are the difficulties faced by the woman in demanding the separation through the court on ground of non-Maintenance? The research follows the qualitative research method to identify the difference between theoretical framework and practical application of laws. The paper concludes that although the grounds of separation in Islamic law are incorporated in various Pakistani law but the application of these laws in courts is different.</p> Dr. Shehla Riaz, Dr. Salma Begum Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/330 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 The Role of Religious Counseling in Depression Treatment: A Descriptive Analysis of Islamic Contemplation Psychology http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/334 <p>Like various other mental diseases, depression prevails throughout the world and is increasing rapidly among all genders, classes and ages. Besides psychiatric treatment and counseling, religious and spiritual factors have a part to play in its treatment. Researchers have found that religion is an important element in the daily lives of the clients; hence it should be included during counseling. This research has been done with the purpose of identifying different aspects of the Islamic perspective with regard to counseling. This research also seeks to analyze the Islamic perspective when it is applied in terms of counseling. This article will discuss how religious life, in particular Islamic lifestyle, affects the physical and emotional well-being of an individual dealing with the mental disorder of depression. Our research is based on the descriptive methodology of discussion regarding Islamic belief system, morality and worship as a means of addressing and treating depression. Literature review and methodology demonstrate that individuals who are practising religion have a stronger sense of wellbeing. They are also able to manage their marriages and families in a more stable manner. People who are strong in their faith are likely to have healthy habits, have less trouble coping with stress, and may not struggle with depression as much as others. They also have healthy immune systems and low levels of diastolic blood pressure, so are less likely to be hospitalized and have healthy lifestyles. Religious practices and faith play an important role in people’s lives that are full of difficult emotional and physical problems. Conclusions along with recommendations have been provided on how health benefits can be achieved through faith for one’s own self or for a loved one who is ill, for all individuals, whether religious or otherwise.</p> Dr. Farhat , Musferah Mehfooz Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/334 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Islamic Principles of Human Resource Development and Their Relevance to Oraganizational Performance http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/301 <p>Total number of skilled and knowledgeable people available in a society are called its human resources. In organizational context, workforce is termed as human resource of that organization. Recent studies have shown a positive link between human resource development and organizational performance. Business organizations incorporate several strategies to develop their human resources to achieve the objective of higher productivity and performance. In global business environment, where local cultures and beliefs are part of organizational development policies, Islamic values cannot be denied. Although HRD is new concept however its basic functions are deep rooted into old concepts of knowledge and skill development. Islam also presents its unique perspectives on human development. In Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet there are many guidelines that refine the personalities of the personnel. Islamic concepts of vicegerent hood, knowledge acquisition, training, accountability, etc are essential constituents of HRD function in Islam. These values positively affect human personality that ultimately results in organizational productivity and performance. Through qualitative analysis important attributes of HRD in Islamic context are highlighted in this paper. It is concluded that Islamic framework of HRD is holistic in nature and provides basis for individual as well as organizational performance enhancement.</p> Dr. Amir Hayat, Dr. Sumera Rabia Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/301 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Negotiating Modernity with Caution: Women of Jama’at-e- Islami Pakistan http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/342 <p>Role of Muslim women in public sphere has been a highly contested topic among international academia since many decades. Dominant Orientalist approach assumes universal and monolithic Islam that is uncompromisingly oppressive to women and confines them in homes. Many of recent studies contest this view and term it as reductionists. This article focusses on the transformation of policies of Jama’at-e-Islami Pakistan (JI), as a representative of contemporary Islamic movements, on the issue of Muslim women’s participation in public sphere and adoption of modernity at their own terms. It investigates the underpinning of these trajectories traversed by the party, synthesising the modernity with Islamic Principles. Research is qualitative in nature and based on textural analysis of the documents i.e. published material (books, articles, proceedings, resolutions, interviews etc.). Input managed through few face-to-face semi structured interviews is also included. Study shows gradual change in party policy; from hesitation in granting even rights of vote to the women, to putting women candidates for assemblies, involving them in street protests and using all modern techniques to further party’s agenda but at their own terms. Study finds that JI has taken every step for opening of public sphere for women, using all the available opportunities, resources and platforms. However there is conspicuous consistency in their narrative that, the first and most important responsibility of women is her home and family. When policies of JI on the issue are viewed in western feminism framework, these seem quite restrictive, oppressive and detrimental to women rights, however, there are others who admit that slowly and steadily, JI women, by using selective tools of modernity, have taken over the major portion of public space, once solely dominated by the secular women organizations in Pakistan.</p> Dr. Humaira Ahmad, Dr Mian Muhammad Rafi Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/342 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Media-tic Challenges for Inter-Faith Harmony in Pakistan and Pragmatic Social Egalitarianism http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/357 <p>Pakistan being multi-religious country has diverse religious communities which have been living as friends for centuries. In the recent past, few incidents of targeting the minorities were reported which labeled Pakistan as a locus of intolerance, extremism and terrorism. As matters of fact, all these troublemakers were funded by some specific international groups and prorogated illicitly by some media groups otherwise the same religious communities have been living in the same land for centuries as brothers and friends.</p> <p>The research is comprises a survey study about the role of Pakistani media for promotion and observing inter-faith harmony among different religious communities in Pakistan. Media has a crucial part in maintain the social pulse especially on inter-faith harmony platform. Nationally and internationally, the wave of creditability is more recognized than the quickness of media so it is pertinent to understand to regularize the media of Pakistan that they should first recheck the news and incidents through the concerned professors of the area and the government officials then break a comprehensive report to stable the creditability of their channel and paint a positive image of Pakistan all over the world. It is also found that Pakistani media is not sufficiently covering the scholars of different religions other than Islam on social life topics and on harmonic points of their religions also.</p> Dr. Syed Aftab Alam, Dr. Saeed Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/357 Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Islamic Banking in the Context of Shariah Objectives and Islamic Legal Maxims http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/321 <p>Islamic banking and finance is actually a sub-component of Islamic economic system and is now a reckoned force in the global financial system. In comparison to the conventional economic ideals, Islamic economic system deals with not only the economic issues and problems, but also takes into consideration, the ethical aspects of society in order to ensure social and collective well being and economic prosperity. The aspect of just and fair allocation of economic resources lies at the heart of economic approach of Islam and Islamic economy’s core principle is to ensure that every strata of society including the rich, middle class and the poor all get the opportunity to live their lives in a functional and productive manner. The philosophy of Islamic banking is primarily pinned upon the Shariah fundamental and primary sources of Quran and <em>Sunnah</em> as well as on the secondary sources, from which <em>Ijtihad</em> is the main secondary source. Islamic baking paradigm endeavors to fulfill Shariah objectives by complying with the tenets of Shariah and operates in the light of Shariah principles and Islamic legal maxims to eventually meet the ultimate objective of <em>falah </em>(success and well-being) in this world and the hereafter.</p> Muhammad Aqib Ali, Talat Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/321 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Translation of the Qur'an Between Text and Ideology http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/302 <p><strong>Translation of the Qur'an between text and ideology</strong></p> <p>Orientalism starts as a religious and cultural movement searching in the Arab world to know about Islam, culture, history, and tradition. They tried hard to dig deeply into Islam through the Quran, Sunnah, all these efforts were due to the strategic geographical position of the Arab world. Orientalists became very fluent in Arabic,</p> <p><strong>The Article is investigating translations of the Quran into English with a focus on the intervention of the ideological factor taking into account the influence of Orientalist ideology. The ideology as in the case of manipulation school in translating Islamic texts by orientalists. The research seeks to examine the relation between ideology and translation. It is true that the Orientalist scholars, although not altogether free from biased thinking, have contributed a lot, so far as their intellectual endeavors are concerned. The paper highlights the features of the Orientalist translation, objectives, sources, motives, structure, and methods. The paper concludes that most orientalist translators are consciously or unconsciously influenced by religious, cultural, social ideologies when they translate Quranic text. The study shows that we need to develop more studies in the field of an ideological factors in the translation of the Quran.</strong></p> Lubna Farah Copyright (c) 2021 ?Q?N https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/302 Wed, 22 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 Index of Books on Honor of Prophethood Published in Urdu http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/359 <p>The greatness of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is a fundamental part of faith, honor, purity, greatness and sanctity of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) And attacking your blessed dignity is an attack on Islam. Respect for every prophet and messenger is part of faith. And above all, love and devotion to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is a fundamental part of a Muslim's faith, and no one's faith can be considered complete unless the Prophet (peace be upon him) To go Becoming the most beloved of all relationships Whoever insults the Holy Prophet (sws) will face severe punishment in the Hereafter. Also worthy of beheading.</p> <p>In every age, believers have told eternal stories of love and connection with the personality of the Prophet (peace be upon him). When they tried to be arrogant, the collective conscience of the Muslims punished the perpetrators,</p> <p>So due to this inspiration ,I try to&nbsp; imphesise specifically on blasphemy law,I want to introduce some work especially in subcontinent on the blasphemy in the form of Biblography&nbsp; in different Languages</p> Muhammad Furqan Copyright (c) 2021 IQAN https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://iqan.com.pk/index.php/iqan/article/view/359 Tue, 28 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500